The Substitutes

This lesson will help you to avoid repetition of nouns in your sentence or passage. You can use other words in the place of nouns. Such words are called pronouns. We can see about pronouns in this lesson.
Sheba Shirely, have you heard about pronouns?
Shirley yes, of course. They are used instead of nouns.
Sheba Then, Let's have a fun (game)
Shirley with pleasure!
Sheba Gary met Joe and his son. Now tell me which is the pronoun?
Shirley Very simple. 'his' is the pronoun.
Sheba Good! What is its case?
Shirley Case! m... m... I don't know, man.
Sheba O, Come on, it is in possessive case. Let's see now - My brother met me in the church. Now, point out the pronoun.
Shirley I think ... it is ...' me'
Sheba you are right; and 'my' is also a pronoun.
me - objective case.
my - possessive case.
Shirley I am sorry, I don't know that much.
Sheba Is it. But you can learn soon and easily too. I'll help you, dear.
Shirley Thank you.


Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.


  1. Stephen is an engineer. He works in London.
  2. The students are writing a test. They will finish it soon.
  3. Ruby is a dancer. She dances gracefully.
  4. Jon said, " I am learning now".
  5. The senators said, "We need an agreement".
  6. I said to Katy, "you need not worry".
  7. I bought a house. It is very beautiful.


We have three pronouns :

The Pronouns I, we, you, he, she, it and they are called personal pronouns because they stand for the three persons.

  • First person - the person speaking.


  1. I am writing.
  2. We are listening
  • Second person - the person spoken to.


He said to me, ' you are intelligent'.

  • Third person - the person spoken of.


  1. I said to him, "He is tall".
  2. "She is tall".
  3. "It is tall".
  4. "They are tall".

C. Forms of Pronouns (Cases)

Persons Number Gender Subjective Objective/Accusative Possessive I Possessive II
I Person
  • Singular
  • Plural
  • Both male and female
  • I
  • We
  • Me
  • Us
  • My
  • Our
  • Mine
  • Ours
II Person
  • Singular
  • Plural
  • Both male and female
  • You
  • You
  • Your
  • Yours
III Person
  • Singular
  • Plural
  • Male
  • Female
  • Neuter
  • All genders
  • He
  • She
  • It
  • they
  • Him
  • Her
  • It
  • them
  • His
  • Her
  • Its
  • their
  • His
  • Her
  • -
  • theirs

Possessive Case

That is my house. This house is mine.
We play in our garden. That garden is ours.
Bring me your book. This book is yours.
This is her bag. The bag is hers.
Mr. Jacob is their father. The house is theirs.
(They qualify the nouns) (shows just possession)

'His' can be used both as possessive adjective and possessive pronoun.


  1. This is his pen. ( possessive adjective )
  2. This pen is his. ( possessive pronoun)

Exception Occured:

Messageerror_log(app.log): Failed to open stream: Permission denied
Trace#0 (): log_error(2, 'error_log(app.log): Failed to open stream: Permission denied', '/home/dh_czz6eb/', 36)
#1 /home/dh_czz6eb/ error_log('16-04-2024 00:36:49 am (IST),/home/dh_czz6eb/,193,0,ErrorException,Optional parameter $per_page declared before required parameter $href is implicitly treated as a required parameter,/english/the-substitutes.html,#0 /home/dh_czz6eb/ log_error(8192, 'Optional parame...', '/home/dh_czz6eb...', 193)
#1 [internal function]: check_for_fatal()
#2 {main}
', 3, 'app.log')
#2 /home/dh_czz6eb/ log_exception(ErrorException)
#3 /home/dh_czz6eb/ log_error(8192, 'Optional parameter $per_page declared before required parameter $href is implicitly treated as a required parameter', '/home/dh_czz6eb/', 193)
#4 (): check_for_fatal()