Noun - Number
|Charles||Where have you been, my dear boy?|
|Matt||Grandpa, you know? I went to the book fair!|
|Charles||Is it? Very good.|
|Matt||Not only that grandpa. I bought five book there.|
|Charles||O! No, it is not 'five book' - It is five books.|
|Matt||why so grandpa?|
|Charles||book' is singular - only one in number. 'books' is plural - more than one.|
|Matt||Singular - plural - interesting! I want to know more grandpa.|
|Charles||Don't worry, I'll teach you.|
Number in noun helps us to know whether a noun is singular or plural. A noun that denotes one person or thing is singular. A noun that refers to more than one person or thing is plural.
The ways of forming plural from singular:
- By adding - s.
- By adding- es. (words ending in -s,-sh, -ch,-x,-o)
- By adding -s (words ending in - O)
- By changing -'y' into -'i' and adding - 'es' (nouns ending in -'y')
- By changing -'f' or -'fe' into -'v' and adding -'es' (nouns ending in -'f' or -'fe': ) and some words takes only -s.
- By changing inside vowel
- By adding - 'en'
- Singular and Plural as same
- Nouns used only in plural
- Collective noun - singular in form but acts as plural
- By adding -'s' to the principal word in the compound noun.
- Nouns with two plural forms with different meanings.
- Nouns with two meanings in singular and one meaning in plural.
- Nouns with one meaning in singular and two meanings in plural.
- Nouns with different meanings in singular and plural.
- By adding an apostrophe and -'s'.
- Usually abstract nouns have no plural.
1. By adding - s
2. By adding- es. (words ending in -s,-sh, -ch,-x,-o)
3. By adding -s (words ending in - O)
4. By changing -'y' into -'i' and adding - 'es' (nouns ending in -'y')
5. a) By changing -'f' or -'fe' into -'v' and adding -'es' (nouns ending in -'f' or -'fe': )
6. By changing inside vowel
7. By adding - 'en'
8. Singular and Plural as same
- I have five dozen pencils. - not dozens.
- There are twenty deer in the garden. - not deers.
- He gave her three thousand rupees. - not thousands
9. Nouns used only in plural
(a) Names of instruments having two parts : scissors, tongs, pincers, spectacles.
- I need a scissors now.
- please wear you spectacles.
(b) Name of certain dress
- Trousers, drawers, shorts, jeans.
- He likes this blue shirts.
- I bought a costly pants.
(c) Name of diseases
- measles, mumps
(d) Name of games :
- Billiards, draughts.
(e) Name of subjects :
- Physics, mathematics, politics.
10. Collective noun - singular in form but acts as plural
- poultry, cattle, people, gentry.
- My cattle are very healthy.
- He met some people there.
11. By adding -'s' to the principal word in the compound noun.
- Sons-in-law not son.in-laws
- Maid servants, men-servants
[exception : spoonfuls, handfuls - because they are considered as one
12. Nouns with two plural forms with different meanings.
- Brother - brothers ( sons of same parent)
- Brethren ( members of a society/community)
- Cloth - cloths ( kinds/pieces of cloth)
- Clothes (garments)
- Index - indexes (tables of contents to books)
- Indices ( signs in algebra)
13. Nouns with two meanings in singular and one meaning in plural.
- radiance lights - lamps.
- a lamp
- nation peoples - nations
- men and women
14. Nouns with one meaning in singular and two meanings in plural :
colour - hue
colours: 1. hues
2. the flag of a regiment
Custom - habit
Customs: 1. habits
2. duties levied on exports.
Manners: 1. methods
Moral- a moral lesson
Morals: 1. moral lessons
Quarter - fourth part
Quarters: 1. fourth parts
15. Nouns with different meanings in singular and plural
|air - atmosphere||airs - affected manners|
|good - well being||goods - merchandise|
|physic - medicine||physics - science|
|iron - metal||irons - fetters|
|force - strength||forces - troops|
16. By adding an apostrophe and -'s': ( figures, letters, symbols)
- There are many a's in this sentence.
- Add three 6's and four 5's
17. Usually abstract nouns have no plural.
18. Some other nouns :
- index - indices
- formula - formulae/formulas.
- memorandum - memoranda
- axis - axes
- crisis - crises
- criterion - criteria
Let us play now:
Say which is correct:
- gooses or geese
- trouser or trousers
- alms or alm
- measle or measles
- billiards or billiard
- cattle or cattles
- son-in-laws or sons-in-law
- charity or charities
- 4's or 4s'
- man-of-wars or men-of-war