Forms of Adverb
A. Words used as adjectives and adverbs:
|As adjectives||As adverbs|
|I heard a loud noise.||They argued very loud.|
|He escaped through the back door.||The soldiers fall back.|
|It is a hard wood to break.||The poor have to work hard.|
|Susan is a fast driver.||Susan drives very fast.|
|We should have high aim.||He always aims high.|
|I have enough savings for my future.||Joe draws beautiful enough to win.|
|There is much water in the lake.||His hand waiting is much better now.|
|Nivedhita is the best student in this class.||She shows the best in her performance.|
|The early bird catches its prey.||Do come early.|
|He has a quick temper for everything.||Be quick and get ready.|
B. There are some adverbs having two form and two different meanings.
1. Late, lately:
- You came late. (opposite to early)
- Have you talked to him lately? (recently)
2. Pretty, prettily:
- It seems a pretty good plan now. (quite)
- It is pretty hard to manage. (quite)
- The little girl smiled prettily. (beautifully)
3. Near, nearly:
- He was sitting near the window. (opposite to distant)
- She has nearly completed the lyrics for the song. (almost)
4. Clear, clearly:
- Please stand clear of the train door. (away from)
- She explained everything clearly. (understandably)
5. Easy, easily:
- Take the challenge easy. (right)
- She solved the problem easily. (without much effort)
6. Fairly/ fairly :
- The union leader must play fair. (justly)
- The patient is fairly old to endure it. (quite)
7. High, highly:
- The helicopter is flying high over the mountain. (distance)
- Shakespeare's plays are very highly appreciated. (standard)
C. Formation of adverbs:
I. Most of the adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives by adding '-ly'.
II. By changing 'y'-into '-i' and adding '-ly':
III. By removing 'e' and adding '-ly' or '-y':
IV. Compound adverbs:
- Meanwhile, meantime, midway.
- Afoot (=on foot), asleep, ahead, abroad.
- Besides, today, overboard.
- Along, aloud, anew, behind, below, beyond.
- Within, before, beneath, without.
Some sentences in example:
- He was reading and meanwhile she was sleeping. (At the same time)
- Ann is cooking and meanwhile the child is playing.
- Allow her to choose her option, but in the meantime we should help her. (Short period of time)
- We are changing our residence but meantime you can use my old address.
- The city mall is midway between the big bazaar and the theatre. (middle)
- Our college is midway between the railway station and the bus stand.
- We all know that changes are afoot. (happening)
- The rescue service is afoot to save the victims.
- The boy fell asleep at his work table. (deep sleep)
- The maid servant fell asleep due to her old age.
- We must go ahead to reach the place. (straight infront)
- The street ahead is very narrow and crowded. (infront)
- She loves to buy goods from abroad. (foreign countries)
- He likes to go abroad after his studies.
- He is a teacher besides being a writer. (in addition to)
- Besides being a painter, she is a good dancer.
- He fell overboard during his sailing the boat. (by the side of the boat or ship)
- The man jumped overboard to save his child.
- We started the project anew. (start from the beginning)
- The villages started their lives anew after the heavy floods.
- He searched for her beyond the street. (on the other side of)
- It is beyond my imagination. (extreme)
- They decided to stay within the village. (particular boundary)
- You should finish it within a month. (Particular time)
- It is on the shelf beneath there. (under)
- She is sitting on the beneath step.
Adverbs joined by conjunction and go together:
- I have explained everything again and again. (repeatedly)
- Delegates from far and wide arrived on time. (number of places)
- Her relatives from far and near attended her wedding. (denotes distance)
- The first and foremost thing is establishing peace in the country. (first of all)
- Please consult a doctor now and then. (from time to time)
- The statement of the witness is out and out false. (completely)
- He is out and out the best player. (beyond comparison)
- She says the same thing over and over. (many times/repeatedly)
- He investigated the case through and through. (Completely / fully)
- The commissioner of police walked to and fro in deep thinking. (backward and forward)
- Thus and thus we escaped from the floods. (In such a way)