Let us continue to learn about modals in detail in this lesson.

E. Shall, Should, will, would

Shall is used:

(I) In the first person to denote future:

  1. I shall meet you next week.
  2. We shall start the construction next month.

(II) In II and III Person to express command, promise or threat.

  1. She shall not commit this blunder again. ( Command)
  2. You shall enjoy a grand dinner. (promise)
  3. They shall meet me in the court.

These kind of sentences are more formal and out of fashion and are avoided in modern English.

(III) In the first person to know the will of a person you address:

  1. Shall I carry this bag to your room? [ Do you want me to carry ……………..]
  2. Which doctor shall I consult (What is your advice)
  3. What shall we do now? (What is your suggestion)

F. Will

Is used:

(I) to denote future tense with all persons:

  1. I Will help you when I return from my tour.
  2. They will reach home soon.
  3. You will enjoy your week end in Ooty.

(II) to show willingness, promise, determinations:

  1. I will help you to solve your problem.
  2. We will arrange the hall for the party. (willingness)
  3. We will follow the rules of the company. (Promise)
  4. I will get the gold medal in this Olympics. (determination)

(III) To denote characteristic habits:

  1. He will play cricket and cricket only.
  2. She will talk about only the great heroes of science.

(IV) to refer to probability / assumption:

  1. I think this will be the street where she lives.
  2. That will \be the man whom we want to meet.

(V) to indicate an invitation / request:

  1. Will you take some rest here? (invitation)
  2. Will you give me your camera? (request)

Will is used for all persons in modern English

G. Should

It is used:

(I) as the past equivalent of 'shall

  1. I aimed I should become a doctor.
  2. He said that they should not walk on the meadow.

(II) to express duty or obligation. (With all persons)

  1. We should follow the road rules.
  2. They should attend the parade.
  3. You should keep your promise.

(III) to express supposition that may not be true (in conditional clauses)

  1. If she should see her father here, she will tell lies.
  2. If it should rain , the children will keep indoors.

(IV) To indicate politeness: (instead of 'want')

  1. We should like to adopt a child.
  2. They should like to help me.

H. Would

It is used:

(I) as past equivalent of 'will'

  1. They said that they would leave the place soon.
  2. My grand father would go for walking for two hours. ( Past habit)

(II) in a polite way:

  1. Would you please shut the door?
  2. I wish you would clean this room.

Must, Ought to

I. Must

Is used:

(I) to express necessity / obligation :

  1. She must work hard to pass.
  2. We must start early to catch the bus.

(must refers to the present or near future)

(II) to denote the past action you should use 'had to' the past tense of 'have to' because ' must' has no past form.

  1. Last week, we had to work on Saturday too.
  2. My father said, that I had to get the school first.

(III) 'must' is used when the obligation is from the speaker.

  1. I must be always honest. (my own decision) [ the obligation is from the speaker – 'I']
  2. I had to be honest .(My father's advice)

if the obligation is from somebody else 'had to' must be used and if you use 'had to' – it is understood that the obligation or wish is from somebody else

J. Ought to

It is used:

(I) to show moral obligation / desire.

  1. you ought to pray to God everyday.
  2. We ought to love our neighbours.

(II) to express probability:
1. They ought to publish the +2 results soon.
2. He ought to meet you soon.

Used to , Need , Dare

K. Used to

It is used:

(I) to express discontinued habit :

  1. He used to go for walking.
  2. We used to spend a lot of time in this park.

L. Need

It is used:

(I) to denote necessity / Obligation :

  1. You need not meet him now.
  2. Need we accept this offer?
  3. They need to be very cautions about this issue.

M. Dare

Brave enough to: [It has no 's' form in the third person singular. It is usually used in negative and interrogative.]

  1. He dare not go there again.
  2. How dare you speak against me?


Pick out the correct answer and fill the blanks

  1. We ___________ to love our neighbors. [Must / ought / shall] ought
  2. She ________ to dance before her marriage. [Ought / used / had] used
  3. They _______ not do the exercise without practice. [Will / shall / must] will
  4. I ____________ be able to do it. [Should / shall /can] shall
  5. ____________ you help me to find out this address? [Could / will /may] could